维基数据:数据访问

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This page is a translated version of the page Wikidata:Data access and the translation is 58% complete.

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如果您是一个想要使用维基数据的大学、公司或组织,这个页面是一个起始点。如果是要在维基媒体项目中使用数据,请参见关于怎样在维基媒体中使用数据的这一页面

需要了解的基本重要事物

和这些人一样的志愿者——也和您一样——创造了维基数据

维基数据提供了大量关于宇宙和至其他数据库的链接的一般数据。这些数据在CC0公有领域授权下发布。它可以被任何人编辑并由维基数据的编者社群维护。

Changes to APIs and data formats used to access Wikidata are subject to the Stable Interface Policy. Changes to stable interfaces will be announced accordingly. Note that not all data sources mentioned on this page are considered stable interfaces.

我如何在维基数据以外获取数据?

There are several ways to access and edit the data from Wikidata. You can access data per item, or the entirety of the data as dumps.

按项访问数据

Data can be accessed either via dereferenceable URIs following linked data standards, or through the MediaWiki API.

连接的数据界面

请看Q42

Each item or property has a persistent URI that you obtain by appending its ID (such as Q42 or P12) to the Wikidata concept namespace: http://www.wikidata.org/entity/

For example, the concept URI of Douglas Adams is http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q42. Note that this URI refers to the real-world person, not Wikidata's description of Douglas Adams. However, it is possible to use the concept URI to access data about Douglas Adams by simply using it as a URL. When you request this URL, it triggers an HTTP redirect that forwards the client to the data URL for Wikidata's data about Douglas Adams: http://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Special:EntityData/Q42. The namespace for Wikidata's data about entities is http://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Special:EntityData/

Appending an entity's ID to this prefix creates the "abstract" (format neutral) form of the data URL of the entity. When you request a Special:EntityData URL, the special page applies content negotiation to determine the format of Wikidata's output. Most likely you opened the URL in a normal Web browser, and an HTML page of Wikidata's data about the entity will be displayed, because a web browser prefers HTML over other formats. Linked data clients would receive Wikidata's data about the entity in a different format such as JSON or RDF, depending on the HTTP Accept: header of their request.

For cases in which it is inconvenient to use content negotiation (e.g. to view non-HTML content in a web browser), you can also access data about an entity in a specific format by extending the data URL with an extension suffix to indicate the content format that you want, such as .json, .rdf, .ttl or .nt. For example, http://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Special:EntityData/Q42.json leads to a JSON export for item Q42. Specific revisions can be obtained by appending a revision query parameter like so http://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Special:EntityData/Q42.json?revision=112.

MediaWiki API

参见API文档

Caution: Some API modules, in particular those accessed via action=query, will return raw page content. For entity pages, that raw page content is not guaranteed to use any documented format or follow any standard structure. Raw page content should be treated as an opaque blob. For access to the canonical JSON form of entity pages, use the wbgetentities and wbsearchentities modules.

SPARQL端点

You can query the data in Wikidata through our SPARQL endpoint, the Wikidata Query Service. The service can be used both as an interactive web interface, or programmatically by submitting GET or POST requests to https://query.wikidata.org/sparql. RDF data can alternatively be accesses via an Linked Data Fragments[1] interface at https://query.wikidata.org/bigdata/ldf. See the user manual and local community pages for more information.

机器人

我们欢迎行为良好的机器人。

您也可以用机器人访问API。参见Wikidata:Bots了解机器人的更多资料。

访问转储

You can download dumps of the whole content of Wikidata. See the database dumps documentation.

增量更新

The recent changes API can be used to see which entities were changed and those can then be fetched via the per item access to data. That way one can incrementally update as long as one is not behind by 30 days or more.

可遵循的最佳实践

我们的标志

Wikidata offers you the data in Wikidata for free with no requirement to attribute under CC-0. We would however greatly appreciate if you would mention Wikidata as the origin of your data. This will allow us to ensure that the project stays around for a long time and provides you with up-to-date and high quality data. We will also promote the best projects using Wikidata's data. Some examples for attributing Wikidata: "Powered by Wikidata", "Powered by Wikidata Tags", "Powered by Wikidata data", "Powered by the magic of Wikidata", "Using Wikidata data", "With data from Wikidata", "Data from Wikidata", "Source: Wikidata", "Including data from Wikidata", ... You can also use one of the ready-made files from us.

You may use the Wikidata logo (see above), but should not do so in any way that implies endorsement by Wikidata, or the Wikimedia Foundation.

Please offer your users a way to report issues in the data and find a way to feed this back to Wikidata's editor community. We are currently working on streamlining this process. Until then please announce where you collect issues on the Project chat.

例子和展示

A number of great tools are being built on top of Wikidata. The external tools page collects them.

另请参见